Prognostické faktory renálního karcinomu

Klíčová slova

renální karcinom
prognostické faktory
nádorový marker
prognostické modely


Renal cell carcinoma represents 2−3% of all adult malignancies and its incidence in the Czech Republic is one of the highest worldwide. Until late stages this disease often remains asymptomatic, which makes its diagnosis difficult. Despite an increasing proportion of small, incidentally detected tumours on imaging, approximately one third of patients are still diagnosed with advanced disease. Moreover, a relapse occurs in up to 40% of patients after surgery for localized tumour. Increased availability of imaging investigations allowing an early detection of kidney carcinoma and advances in systemic treatment have favourably affected the outcome of patients with this type of tumour. Nevertheless, mortality of renal cell carcinoma remains the highest among urological malignancies. The individual course of the disease and its response to systemic treatment are difficult to predict. A number of prognostic factors of renal cell carcinoma have been identified, of which TNM classification and tumour grade remain the most important. Recently, several multivariate prognostic models have become available, allowing a more accurate prediction of the disease course. In localized disease, they are useful in identifying patients at higher risk of recurrence and allow optimization of follow-up after surgery. In metastatic disease, they are routinely used to stratify patients into risk groups for targeted treatment. There has been a long-term effort to identify a suitable biomarker useful for an early detection and assessment of the prognosis of renal cell carcinoma. At the same time, such a biomarker could improve the accuracy of established prognostic systems. This text presents an overview of prognostic factors of renal cell carcinoma, including a summary of potential biomarkers